# Utility maximization and the demand curve

Could also be approximated using market price of close substitute. Those quantities are determined by the application of the marginal decision rule to utility maximization. Andrews maximizes utility by purchasing 5 pounds of apples per month. Andrews maximized her utility by purchasing 5 pounds of apples, as illustrated in Figure 7.

When the price of apples fell, she increased the quantity of apples she purchased to 12 pounds. Notice that, in this example, Ms. Andrews maximizes utility where not only the ratios of marginal utilities to price are equal, but also the marginal utilities of both goods are equal.

But, the equal-marginal-utility outcome is only true here because the prices of the two goods are the same: If the prices of apples and oranges were different, the marginal utilities at the utility maximizing solution would have been different.

The condition for maximizing utility—consume where the ratios of marginal utility to price are equal—holds regardless. The utility-maximizing condition is not that consumers maximize utility by equating marginal utilities.

## Deriving an Individual’s Demand Curve

Suppose that in addition to Ms. Andrews, there are two other consumers in the market for apples—Ellen Smith and Koy Keino. The quantities each consumes at various prices are given in Figure 7. Andrews consumes at each price.

## From Individual to Market Demand

The demand curves for each are shown in Panel a. The market demand curve for all three consumers, shown in Panel bis then found by adding the quantities demanded at each price for all three consumers. Andrews demands 5 pounds of apples per month, Ms. Smith demands 3 pounds, and Mr.

Keino demands 8 pounds. A total of 16 pounds of apples are demanded per month at this price. This method of adding amounts along the horizontal axis of a graph is referred to as summing horizontally. The market demand curve is thus the horizontal summation of all the individual demand curves.

Their individual demand curves are plotted in Panel a. The market demand curve for all three is shown in Panel b. Individual demand curves, then, reflect utility-maximizing adjustment by consumers to various market prices.

Once again, we see that as the price falls, consumers tend to buy more of a good. Demand curves are downward-sloping as the law of demand asserts. Behind that adjustment, however, lie two distinct effects: It is important to distinguish these effects, because they can have quite different implications for the elasticity of the demand curve.

First, the reduction in the price of apples made them cheaper relative to oranges. Before the price change, it cost the same amount to buy 2 pounds of oranges or 1 pound of apples.

## Economics: Consumer surplus and price elasticity of demand

After the price change, it cost the same amount to buy 1 pound of either oranges or apples.In our previous videos, we covered the basics of the demand plombier-nemours.com we get to dive into what happens when the demand curve shifts due to increases or decreases in market demand.

Utility theory provides a methodological framework for the evaluation of alternative choices made by individuals, firms and organizations. Econ -­‐ Fall Page 1 of 7 Utility Maximization and the Demand Curve This write-up is intended to make clear what utility maximization is and how utility maximization under the assumption of diminishing marginal utility results in, all else equal, a negative relationship between the price of a good and the quantity demanded of that good.

Rule of utility maximization and demand curve The essence of the maximization of utility rule is the following: the income of the consumer should be distributed in such a way that the last monetary unit expended on each product or service brings an equal marginal utility.

Utility Maximization Steps MPP Fall, The MRS and the Cobb-Douglas Consider a two-good world, xand y. Our consumer, Skippy, wishes to maximize utility. Understand that the key characteristic of oligopoly is interdependence, apply game theory to examples, and accurately draw the kinked demand curve.

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